“For every action there is an equal
and opposite reaction.”
This is not the correct choice for
However, Newton’s Third Law of Action-Reaction
is the essence of jet and rocket propulsion. Let’s look at
a diagram of the combustion chamber of a rocket (essentially your
If it were closed, the pressurized air would push
out on all sides equally, like a balloon.
However, open the nozzle and the escaping air leaves
an unbalanced force on the opposite side of the bottle.
The “action” is the
movement of air out of the nozzle. The “reaction”
is the forward motion of the bottle.
Part of what determines the bottle’s velocity
is the MOMENTUM (momentum = mass x velocity) of the escaping particles.
There is another law, called the Conservation of Momentum
Law that requires the momentum of the bottle (bottle mass
x bottle velocity) to be equal but opposite to the momentum of the
escaping air (air mass x air velocity).