Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study

FOREWORD

There appears to have been a corporate loss of memory in the USA on how to build space mechanisms (mechanically moving components) for long life and reliability.  A large number of satellite failures and anomalies have occurred recently (e.g., Galileo, Hubble, etc.).  In addition, more demanding requirements have been causing failures or anomalies to occur during the qualification testing of future satellite and space platform mechanisms even before they are launched (GOES-NEXT, CERES, Space Station Beta Joint Gimbal, etc.).  For these reasons, it is imperative to determine what worked in the past and what failed so that the best selection of mechanical components can be made as well as to make timely decisions on initiating research to develop any needed technology.  The purpose of this study was to capture and retrieve information relating to the performance of mechanical moving equipment operating in space to determine what components have operated successfully and what components have produced anomalies.

Data were obtained through various sources, such as: (1) An extensive literature review that included government contractor reports and technical journals.  (2) Communication and visits (when necessary) to the various NASA and DOD centers and their designated contractors.  This included contact with project managers of current and prior NASA satellite programs as well as their industry counterparts.  (3) Requests for unpublished information were made to NASA and industry.  (4) A mail survey which was designed to establish specific mechanism experience and also to solicit opinions of what should be included in a future Space Mechanisms Design Guidelines Handbook.

The majority of the work was done at MTI under contract NAS3-27086.  The following acknowledgement section also lists some organizations and individuals who contributed to the work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The literature review required the assistance of knowledgeable technical personnel.  The assistance of Dr. Dantum Rao was helpful.  Dr. E.M. Roberts of the European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) provided the European literature review and a listing of experts; his efforts are acknowledged and appreciated.  Mr. Bobby McConnell of Tribotech Consultants also provided valuable information from his knowledge of Air Force Space Mechanisms programs.  The authors appreciate those who responded to the Space Mechanism Survey.  Special recognition goes to Mr. Richard Fink and David Marks of the Honeywell Electro Components Division, Durham, North Carolina, and to Mr. Bryan Workman of the Honeywell Satellite Systems Operation who organized their many responses.  Recognition also goes to Laurence Bement of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC) for his contribution on Pyrotechnics; to Claudia Woods of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA-GFSC); to Dennis Egan of Applied Innovation; and to Stuart Lowenthal of Lockheed Missile & Space Company, Inc.  We would also like to acknowledge the reviewers of the manuscripts: Dr. Michael Khonsari of the University of Pittsburgh, Mark Siebert of Toledo University and Ralph Jansen of the Ohio Aerospace Institute.

LIST OF FIGURES

  1. Space Mechanisms Survey Form
  2. ESTL Vacuum Chamber
  3. Boundary Lubrication Accelerated Screening Tester
  4. Honeywell Environmental Test Facility
  5. Honeywell Environmental Thermal Chamber
  6. Honeywell Shaker Table Facility and Control Room
  7. Pyrotechnic Test Facility at NASA - Langley
  8. Pyrotechnic Test Cells at NASA - Langley
  9. Pyrotechnic Test Cells Outside at NASA - Langley

LIST OF TABLES

  1. Anomalies of Pyrotechnic Devices
  2. Tribomaterials for Deployment Mechanisms
  3. Lockheed Solutions to Limitations of Conventional Designs
  4. General Guidelines for Worm Gear Systems
  5. Actuators Using Brush Motors
  6. Partial Listing of Momentum/Reaction Wheel, Control Moment Gyroscope, and Gyroscope Experience
  7. Factors Tending to Increase Blocking

INTRODUCTION

Future National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) space missions will require advanced performance standards, increased life, and improved reliability of mechanical systems and their components.  Enhancements require learning from past experience and transferring technology to newer generations.  Accordingly, NASA has embarked on a program to produce a Space Mechanisms Handbook that will provide guidelines and recommendations to future mechanism designers.  As part of that program, a Lessons Learned study was performed to determine prior anomalies and how to avoid them in the future.  This report provides the information obtained during the Lessons Learned study.

Three major categories of mechanisms were selected: deployable appendages, rotating systems, and oscillating systems.  Subsystems of these major categories are as follows.

Deployable Appendages

Rotating Systems

Oscillating Systems

Information for the Lessons Learned study was retrieved from a number of sources including:

Available Literature.  The literature review proved to be the most significant source of information.  In particular, the 28 Annual Proceedings of the Aerospace Mechanism Symposium was an extremely valuable resource.  Also, a NASA-Goddard publication on deployable appendages was very informative.  In compiling the literature review, a specific format was adhered to.  The ingredients of the format are described in Volume II, Literature Review.

The constraints of the literature search limited publications to those that described anomalies and/or lessons learned.  Mechanism descriptions contained in these publications were also summarized and documented for subsequent use in generation of the handbook.

Industrial Survey.  A survey form was created, which is presented in the Survey Results section of this report.  Over 600 surveys were mailed with approximately 30 responses.  Some significant information was provided, especially by the Satellite Systems Operation and the Electro Components Division of the Honeywell Corporation, who spent considerable time in preparing information.  Other responses provided additional reference material.

Subcontracts. The European Space Tribology Laboratory (ESTL) contributed a review of the European Literature and provided a listing of European experts.  Also Bobby McConnell, of Tribotech Consultants, who has considerable experience with military applications of space mechanisms contributed information.

This report is organized into two volumes.  Volume I provides a summary of the lessons learned, the results of a needs analysis, the survey responses, a listing of experts, a description of some available facilities, and a compilation of references.  The completed literature reviews comprise Volume II.

SUMMARY OF LESSONS LEARNED

This section summarizes the lessons learned from the Survey Results and from the Literature Review (Volume II) performed for the three main categories (deployable appendages, rotating systems, and oscillating systems) and their respective subsystems.  Authors' names that appear in brackets, e.g., [Farley], indicate that more detailed information on a topic is included in Volume II under the same category, subsystem, and author/expert name.

Deployable Appendages

Solar Arrays

Retention and Release Mechanisms

Table 1: Anomalies of Pyrotechnic Devices
DateProjectFailureSource of FailureResolution
1976RSRAFiring pin assemblies corroded and locked in qualificationBad designRedesigned, requalified
1973ClassifiedPin puller failed during system test (cartridge closure blocking port)Lack of understandingRedesigned, requalified
1979ClassifiedPin puller ruptured during system test (inadequate containment margin and variation in metal grain orientation)Lack of understandingRedesigned, requalified
1987MagellanPin puller failed to stroke against flight side load (NSI output restricted, causing reduced output and housing deformation against working piston)Bad design; misapplication of hardwareReplaced, requalified
1986Magellan OrbiterPin puller failed to function in LAT (NSI produced insufficient pressure caused by coatings of pressurized volume)Misapplication of hardware; lack of understandingChanged manufacturer and design
1986ASATBolt cutter failed LAT (improper compression margin test requirement)Incorrect specificationCorrect specification

Bearings, Lubrication, and Tribology Considerations

Table 2: Tribomaterials for Deployment Mechanisms
MechanismsMission RequirementTechnology ShortfallTribomaterials / Mechanical Solution
Solar Array Drive
  • Reversible fast stow and deploy (10-sec retraction)
  • 360-degree continuous rotation (0.3 to 15 deg/sec)
  • 10- to 15-yr life, high torque with very small ripple
  • Reduced torque and torque noise
  • Lightweight (reduced size) bearings / gears
  • Long-life lubrication (thermal gradients, decontamination)
  • Solid lubricant (wear-resistant films)
  • Traction drives wiht controlled friction solid lubricant coatings
Antennas and Sensor Platforms
  • Synchronous and sequential deployment
  • Pointing accuracy while retracting
  • Consistent friction over 10- to 15-yr life
  • Lubricant life and survivability
  • Low friction, friction noise, and jitter
  • Reliability under quick transition from stowed to deployed
  • Synthetic hydrocarbons (low vapor pressure and additives)
  • Solid lubricant films (low friction and wear)
  • New polymeric retainers for ball bearings
Release Mechanisms
  • Launch load protection
  • Operational performance
  • Shape memory alloy, fatigue / reliability
  • Solid-lubricated mechanical release mechanisms

Antennas and Masts

Actuators, Transport Mechanisms, and Switches

Table 3: Lockheed Solutions to Limitations of Conventional Designs
ProblemSolution
Dynamic rangeUse of an electromagnet actuator in an analog closed-loop using special low-noise sensor electronics
BandwidthUse of electromagnetic actuator and moderate equivalent gear ratio
Stiction / frictionNo bearings or lubricants; exclusively flex pivots
High power consumptionFour-bar linkage (lever) and force unload system
Inability to cancel static frictionForce unload system

General and Miscellaneous

General anomalies and lessons learned (guidelines) for deployment mechanisms are given below: [Farley]

Rotating Systems

Momentum Wheels

Reaction Wheels

Control Moment Gyroscopes

Gears

Table 4: General Guidelines for Worm Gear Systems
GuidelineReason
Make the hob as nearly identical to the worm as possible.  Use slightly larger center distance for hobbing. Optimize contact prior to break-in.
Make face width a maximum of 50% of worm diameter. Avoid high-contact load on outer edges of gear teeth.
Avoid low-pressure angles on low-tooth-count gears. Avoid undercutting.
Total count (worm gear) should be a minimum of 40. Avoid geometric interference.
Avoid low speeds and stall. Low speed promotes severe boundary lubrication.
Grease lubrication may require special techniques to maintain performance. Oil film benefits from replenishment such as an oil bath.
Use fine surface finishes. Improves lube and wear.
Set the gear setup so that initial contact pattern is on the leaving side of the gear. Provide oil reservoir on the entering side.  Pattern will grow to cover entire width over life.
Break in gradually with loads and abundant lubrication. Break-in greatly increases life.

Motors

Table 5: Actuators Using Brush Motors
DescriptionApplicationCustomerProgram
High-torque gear motor150 ft-lb torque driverNASA-Goddard Solar Maximum Repair
Latch gear motorTool latchingNASA-Goddard Solar Maximum Repair
Gear motorCaging mechanismMartin MariettaFTS
Linear actuator (1000 lb)UnknownGrummanUnknown
Linear acutator (15 lb)OSSE experimentBall Aerospace Gamma Ray Observatory
Rotary actuatorUmbilical disconnect mechanismLockheed Classified
Rotary actuatorRocket nozzle extension actuatorAllied SignalAtlas Centaur II
dc common drive unitSolar drive deploymentFokkerEureka
dc gear motorSolar array deploymentAstroOlympus (L-SAT)
Gear motors (various sizes)Various drive functionMartin MariettaClassified
Gear motorUnknownMartin MariettaTOS
Gear motorSolar boom deploymentISRO (India)India Communication Satellite
High-torque actuatorAntenna deploymentGE AStroUpper Atmosphere Research Satellite
Redundant drive motorAstromast deploymentFordGOES
Worm gear drive unitClassifiedHarrisClassified
Center drive unitClassifiedHarrisClassified
Payload spin motor (integral hp)Deploy spinner satellitesMartin MariettaTitan Launch Vehicle

Bearings and Lubrication

Table 6: Partial Listing of Momentum / Reaction Wheel, Control Moment Gyroscope, and Gyroscope Experience
ProgramWheel TypeProblemCauseAction
Navstar / GPSReaction wheel; four per satellite On-orbit and test failures; high torqueLubricant depletion New lubrication qualification
GPS IIRReaction wheelHigh-speed cage instability Force, mass resonanceForce, mass; biased cages
DMSPReaction wheelBearings / lubricant could not be delivered Lubricant degradationExtensive bearing run-in and screening
DSPLarge momentum wheelTorque / temperature anomalies Lubricant starvationRedundant wheels
MILSTARRate gyroscopesDrive rate / torque instabilityLubricant starvationImproved lubrication, cage processing
CDPLarge control moment gyroscopes; > one per satellite Extensive torqueLube loss, cage instabilityActive oiler system, new oil
DSCS IIIReaction wheelTorque noise, vibrationUnknownRedundant wheels

Slip Rings and Roll Rings

Miscellaneous

Potentiometers

Cryogenic Grating Drive Mechanism

Payload Spin Assembly

Multichannel Chopper System

Vapor Compressor

Oscillating Systems

Table 7: Factors Tending to Increase Blocking
Factor IncreasedEffect
Conformity (tighter)Increases spin; higher spin torque and drag
Contact angleIncreases spin; higher spin torque and drag
One-piece cageRestricts ball speed spacing; increases cage windup
MisalignmentIncreases ball speed variation; increases cage windup
Friction coefficientIncreases traction forces; increases anomalous torque
Contact angle variationIncreases ball speed variation
Ball diameter toleranceIncreases ball speed variation
Thrust versus radial bearingThrust bearing has all balls loaded; no opportunity for ball spacing to readjust

NEEDS ANALYSIS

A review of the information compiled for the Lessons Learned study reveals that bearing and lubrication problems are the most prevalent and, thus, improved technologies are most needed in these areas.  This was further substantiated by a survey conducted by Fusaro, where the number one need was for liquid lubricants.  There are other areas of importance.  The principal needs derived from the study are given below.

Deployable Appendages

Rotating Systems

Oscillating Systems

SURVEY RESULTS

MTI and NASA developed a survey form and solicited various industries for information.  The information requested is indicated on the sample form shown in Figure 1.  Figure 1 and the rest of the Survey Results are in the Space Mechanisms Lessons Learned Study.  The study is available in the NASA Space Mechanisms Handbook and Reference Guide DVD.

Over 600 survey forms were transmitted and approximately 30 replies were received.  The replies varied in quality from scribbles to detailed amounts of lessons learned.  Honeywell Electro Components and the Honeywell Satellite Systems Operation were particularly responsive.  The significant responses follow.

LISTING OF EXPERTS

Deployable Appendages

Gibb, John
Lockheed Missiles & Space Co., Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Retention and Release Mechanisms

Bement, Laurence J.
NASA-Langley Research Center
Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001
(804) 864-7084

Hinkle, K.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Engineering Directorate
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Maus, Daryl
Starsys Research Corp.
5757 Central Avenue, Suite E
Boulder, Colorado 80301
(303) 444-6707

McCown, William
Rexnord Aerospace Mechanisms
2530 Skypark Drive
Torrance, California 90505

Phan, M.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Schaper, P.W.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2140

Schimmel, Morry L.
Schimmel Company
St. Louis, Missouri

Sevilla, D.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3644

Skyles, Lane P.
Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Company
1150 Gemini Avenue
Houston, Texas 77058
(713) 333-6456

Tibbitts, Scott
Maus Technologies
Boulder, Colorado

Wagoner, B.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3644

Bearings, Lubrication, and Tribology Considerations

Bauer, Reinhold
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90009-2957

Didziulis, Stephen V.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90009-2957

Divine, E.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Dugger, Michael T.
Sandia National Laboratories
Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800

Fehrenbacher, L.
Technology Assessment and Transfer, Inc.
Annapolis, Maryland

Fleischauer, P.D.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90009-2957

Hilton, M.D.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90009-2957
(310) 336-0440

Keem, John M.
Ovonic Synthetic Materials Corporation
Troy, Michigan 48084

Rowntree, Robert A.
European Space Tribology Laboratory
UKAEA, Risley, Warrington, England

Rowntree, Robert A.
National Center of Tribology
Northern Research Laboratories
UKAE, Risley, Warrington, United Kingdom

Scholhamer, James
Ovonic Synthetic Materials Corporation
Troy, Michigan 48084

Todd, M.J.
National Center of Tribology
Northern Research Laboratories
UKAE, Risley, Warrington, United Kingdom

Antennas and Masts

Greenfield, Herbert T.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Hinkle, K.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Johnson, Michael R.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099

Metzger, J.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Actuators, Transport Mechanisms, and Switches

Aubrun, J.N.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Hawthorne, H.M.
Tribology and Mechanics Laboratory
NRCC
Vancouver, Canada

Jones, Stephen R.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Leary, W.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Lewis, D.F.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099

Lorell, K.R.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

O'Donnel, T.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099

Perez, E.O.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Poulsen, R.N.
Hughes Aircraft Company
P.O. Box 902
El Segundo, California 90245

Priesett, Klaus
Dornier GmbH
Friedrichshafen, Germany

Sharma, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Stark, Kenneth W.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Tweedt, R.E.
Hughes Aircraft Company
P.O. Box 902
El Segundo, California 90245

Tyler, A.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Wilson, Meredith
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Zacharie, D.F.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

General and Miscellaneous

Anonymous
United States Air Force Space Division, SD/ALM
P.O. Box 92960
Los Angeles, California 90009-2960

Aubrun, J.N.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Devine, E.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Federline, Robert E.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Frank, D.J.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Lorrell, K.R.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Parker, K.
European Space Tribology Laboratory
Risley, Warrington, United Kingdom

Zacharie, D.F.
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Rotating Systems

Momentum Wheels

Akishita, S.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Amagasaki, Japan

Anonymous
United States Air Force Space Division, SD/ALM
P.O. Box 92960
Los Angeles, California 90009-2960

Auer, W.
TELDIX GmbH
Heidelberg, Germany

Bialke, B.
ITHACO, Inc.
735 W. Clinton Street
Ithaca, New York 14851-6437
(607) 272-7640

Boesinger, E.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Donley, A.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Fehrenbacher, L.L.
Technology Assessment and Transfer
Annapolis, Maryland

Inoue, M.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Amagasaki, Japan

Lowenthal, S.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Murakami, C.
National Aerospace Laboratory
Tokyo, Japan

Okamoto, O.
National Aerospace Laboratory
Tokyo, Japan

Warner, Mark H.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Yabu-uchi, K.
Mitsubishi Electric Corporation
Amagasaki, Japan

Reaction Wheels

Bialke, B.
ITHACO, Inc.
735 W. Clinton Street
Ithaca, New York 14851-6437
(607) 272-7640/(800) 847-2080/Fax: (607) 2727-0804

Hasna, Martin D.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Control Moment Gyroscopes

Blondin, Joseph
Allied Signal Aerospace Company
Guidance Systems Division
Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

Cook, Lewis
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812

Golley, Paul
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812

Gurrisi, Charles
Allied Signal Aerospace Company
Guidance Systems Division
Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

Kolvek, John
Allied Signal Aerospace Company
Guidance Systems Division
Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

Krome, Henning
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812

Gears

McCown, William
Rexnord Aerospace Mechanisms
2530 Skypark Drive
Torrance, California 90505

Motors

Devine, E.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Henson, Barnie W.
European Space Agency
Noordwijk, Holland

Kackley, Russell
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

McCully, Sean
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Sharma, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Tyler, A.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Bearings and Lubrication

Allen, Terry
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Anonymous
Allied Signal Aerospace Company (Bendix)
Guidance Systems Division
Teterboro, New Jersey 07608

Baxter, Bryan H.
British Aerospace plc.
Stevenage, England

Benzing, R.J.
Air Force Materials Laboratory
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 65433

Bertrand, P.A.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Boesiger, Edward A.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Fleischauer, P.D.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Fowler, Peter H.
TRW Space and Technology Group
Redondo Beach, California 90278

Gelette, Erik
The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Hall, Barry P.
British Aerospace plc.
Stevenage, England

Hilton, Michael
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Hooper, Fred L.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Kingsbury, Dr. Edward
The Bearing Consultants
1063 Turnpike Street
Stoughton, Massachusetts 02072

Langmaier, J.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2031

Manders, Frank
Ball Aerospace Systems Division
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Parker, K.
European Space Tribology Laboratory
Risley Nuclear Power Development Laboratory
UKAEA, Risley, Cheshire, England

Phinney, Damon D.
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302
(303) 442-7824

Rowntree, R.A.
National Tribology Center (ESTC)
United Kingdom

Singer, Herbert
The Charles Stark Draper Laboratory
Cambridge, Massachusetts

Smith, Dennis W.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Strang, J.R.
Air Force Materials Laboratory
Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 65433

Todd, M.J.
National Tribology Center (ESTC)
United Kingdom

Vest, C.E.
Applied Physics Laboratory
Pennsylvania

Warner, Mark H.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Slip Rings and Roll Rings

Atlas, G.
Societe Europeenne de Propulsion (SEP)
Vernon, France

Batista, J.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Langmaier, J.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2031

Matteo, Donald N.
General Electric Company
Space Systems Operations
Valley Forge, Pennsylvania

Phinney, Damon D.
Ball Aerospace Systems Division
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Smith, Dennis W.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Thomin, G.
Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES)
Toulouse, France

Vise, J.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Young, K.
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Miscellaneous

Dubitschek, Michael J.
Ball Corporation, Aerospace Systems Group
Electro-Optics/Cryogenics Division
Boulder, Colorado

Isekenderian, Theodore C.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology
Guidance and Control Section
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099

Krueger, Arlin J.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Pech, Greg
Martin Marietta
Denver, Colorado

Robinson, Wilf
Honeywell Inc.
Satellite Systems Operation
19019 N. 59th Avenue
Glendale, Arizona 85308-9650

Weilbach, August O.
Helvart Associates
Fullerton, California

Oscillating Systems

Oscillating Mechanisms

Akin, David
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Bohner, John J.
Hughes Aircraft Company
Space and Communications Group
Los Angeles, California

Carre, David
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Conley, Peter L.
Hughes Aircraft Company
Space and Communications Group
Los Angeles, California

Didziulis, Stephen
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Mail Code 731
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Fleischauer, Paul
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Gill, Steven
European Space Tribology Laboratory
AEA Technology
Risley, Warrington, United Kingdom

Hilton, Michael
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Hinricks, J.T.
Ball Aerospace Systems Division
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Horber, Ralph
H. Magnetics Corporation

Kalogeras, Chris
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Loewenthal, Stuart H.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086

Phinney, D.D.
Ball Aerospace Systems Division
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Pollard, C.L.
Ball Aerospace Systems Division
960 6th Street
Boulder, Colorado 80302

Sharma, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Mail Code 731
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Wolfson, Jake
Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory
3251 Hanover Street
Palo Alto, California 94304

Woods, C.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Mail Code 731
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771

Survey Responses

Rotating Mechanisms

Brown, Lee
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Christiansen, Scott
Starsys Research Corp.
5757 Central Avenue, Suite E
Boulder, Colorado 80301
(303) 494-6707

Christy, R.
(310) 457-2261

Dekramer, C.
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Devine, E.
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Dolan, Fred
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 544-2512

Ellis, Robert
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4261

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771
(301) 286-2252

Fink, Richard
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 4264

Gallaher, Jack
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771
(301) 286-9567

Golley, Paul
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 544-3434

Herald, Michelle K.
Space Systems/Loral
3825 Fabian Way, M/S G44
Palo Alto, California 94303-4604
(415) 852-5175

Hodges, Charles
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4290

Jones, William R.
NASA-Glenn Research Center
21000 Brookpark Road, MS 23-2
Cleveland, OH 44135
(216) 433-6051

Lake, Mark
NASA-Langley Research Center
MS 199
Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001

Loewenthal, Stuart
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086(408) 743-2491

Mikulas, Prof. Martin Jr.
University of Colorado
MS 429
Boulder, Colorado 80303

Peterson, Prof. Lee
University of Colorado
MS 429
Boulder, Colorado 80303

Raymond, Bruce
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4206

Sevilla, D.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2136

Wai, Leilani C.
P.O. Box 2755
Sunnyvale, California 94087-0755

Scanning Mechanisms

Allen, Bibb B.
Harris Corporation
P.O. Box 37
Melbourne, Florida 32902

Bar-Cohen, Dr. Y.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2610

Bearman, Dr. Greg
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3285

Christy, R.
(310) 457-2261

Devine, E.
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Henry, Dr. Paul
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3106

Herald, Michelle K.
Space Systems/Loral
3825 Fabian Way, M/S G44
Palo Alto, California 94303-4604
(415) 852-5175

Jones, William R.
NASA-Glenn Research Center
21000 Brookpark Road, MS 23-2
Cleveland, OH 44135
(216) 433-6051

Lilienthal, G.W.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-9082

Loewenthal, Stuart
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 743-2491

Wai, Leilani C.
P.O. Box 2755
Sunnyvale, California 94087-0755

Deployable Mechanisms

Allen, Bibb B.
Harris Corporation
P.O. Box 37
Melbourne, Florida 32902

Bar-Cohen, Dr. Y.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2610

Bearman, Dr. Greg
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3285

Bement, Laurence J.
NASA-Langley Research Center
Mail Stop 433
Hampton, Virginia 22681-0001
(804) 864-7084

Brown, Lee
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Christiansen, Scott
Starsys Research Corp .
5757 Central Avenue, Suite E
Boulder, Colorado 80301
(303) 494-6707

Christy, R.
(310) 457-2261

Dekramer, C.
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Devine, E.
Swales and Associates
5050 Power Mill Road
Beltsville, Maryland 20705
(301) 595-5500

Dolan, Fred
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 544-2512

Ellis, Robert
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4261

Farley, R.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771
(301) 286-2252

Fink, Richard
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4264

Gallaher, Jack
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt, Maryland 20771
(301) 286-9567

Gogely, James
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Golley, Paul
NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 544-3434

Henry, Dr. Paul
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-3106

Herald, Michelle K.
Space Systems/Loral
3825 Fabian Way, M/S G44
Palo Alto, California 94303-4604
(415) 852-5175

Hodges, Charles
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4290

Hunter, Alex
The Boeing Company
Space and Lunar Deployment Mechanisms
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 461-2085

Lake, Mark
NASA-Langley Research Center
MS 199
Hampton, Virginia 23681-0001

Lilienthal, G.W.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-9082

Manning, Hugh E.
The Boeing Company
Materials and Processes
Huntsville, Alabama 35812
(205) 461-5858

Menichelli, Vince
TRW, Norton Air Force Base
P.O. Box 1310
San Bernadino, California 92402

Mikulas, Prof. Martin Jr.
University of Colorado
MS 429
Boulder, Colorado

Peterson, Prof. Lee
University of Colorado
MS 429
Boulder, Colorado 80303

Raymond, Bruce
Honeywell Corporation
921 Holloway Street
Durham, North Carolina 27702
(919) 956-4206

Schimmer, Morry L.
8127 Amherst Avenue
St. Louis, Misourri 63130

Sevilla, D.
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
4800 Oak Grove Drive
Pasadena, California 91109-8099
(818) 354-2136

Wai, Leilani C.
P.O. Box 2755
Sunnyvale, California 94087-0755

Wittschen, Barry
NASA-Johnson Space Flight Center
Houston, Texas 77058

Miscellaneous

Boesiger, Edward
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 743-2377

Dursch, H.
Boeing Defense and Space Group
Seattle, Washington
(206) 773-0627

Gresham, Robert M.
E/M Corporation
2801 Kent Avenue
West Lafayette, Indiana 47906-0400
(317) 497-6340

Hopple, George
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 746-2502

Hustad, Gary
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 743-7455

Loewenthal, Stuart
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 743-2491

Putnam, David
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94086
(408) 743-2987

ESTL Space Mechanisms

Altshuler, Y.
Israeli Aircraft Industries
Electronics Division
Yehud, Industrial Zone 56 000
Israel
Phone: 3-5314439

Andersson
Saab Ericsson Space AB
S-58188 Linkoping
Sweden
Phone: 13-286400

Atlas, G.
SEP
Forest De Vernon - BP 802
27207 Vernon, France
Phone: 32-21-72-00

Bekaert, G.
Sabca
Departement Etudes Aerospatiales
1470 Chaussee de Haecht
B-1130 Brussels, Belgium
Phone: 2-216-80-10

Banerjee, S.K.
Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre
Indian Space Research Organisation
Trivandrum 695 022, India
Phone: 0471-562621

Barho, R.
Dornier GmbH
RST 123, Postfach 1420
D-7990 Friedrichshafen, Germany
Phone: 7545-80

Bentall, Dr. R.H.
ESA/ESTEC
Keplerlaan 1
220 AG Noordwijk ZH, The Netherlands
Phone: 1719-86555

Bialke, W.E.
ITHACO, Inc.
735 West Clinton Street, P.O. Box 6437
Ithaca, New York 14851
(607) 272-7640

Birner, R.
MBB, Unternehmensbereich Raumfahrt
Postfach 801169
8000 Munchen 80 (Munich), Germany
Phone: 089-607-22643

Bohner, J.J.
Hughes Space and Communications Group
P.O. Box 92919, S12/V361
Los Angeles, California 90009
(213) 648-2393

Bollinger, W.
Carl Zeiss
P.O. Box 1369/1380
D-7082 Oberkochen, Germany
Phone: 07364-20-3354

Borrien, A.
CNES
18 Av. Edouard Belen, F-31055 Toulouse
Cedex, France
Phone: 61-27-3131

Briscoe, H.M.
Tykes Barn
Goose Street
Southwick, Wiltshire, United Kingdom
Phone: 0225-753100

Caslini, D.
Fiat Avio
112, Corso Ferrucci
1-10138 Torino (Turin), Italy
Phone: 11-33 02 12

Clemmet, J.F.
British Aerospace (Space Systems) Ltd.
Argyle Way
Stevenage, Herts, United Kingdom SG1 2AS
Phone: 0438-313456

Comparetto, V.
I.A.M. Rinaldo Piaggio SpA
I-17024 Finale Ligure, Italy
Phone: 19-692741

Corcorcuto, I.S.
Fiat Avio
Corso Ferrucci, 112
1-10138 Torino, Italy
Phone: 11-3302-644

Cracknell, D.
GEC Marconi Research Centre
West Hanningfield Road
Great Baddow
Chelmsford, Essex, United Kingdom
Phone: 0245-473331

del Campo, F.
Sener
Avda Zugazarte 56
E-48930 Las Arenas-Vizcaya, Spain
Phone: 4-481-7500

Edeline, E.
SEP
Division Propulsion A Liquides et Espace
Foret de Vernon, BP802
F27207 Vernon, France
Phone: 32 21 54 50

Escobar, J.
CASA
Avenida Aragon, 404
E-28022 Madrid, Spain
Phone: 1-586 3700

Etzler, C-Chr.
Dornier GmbH
RST 123, Postfach 1420
D-7990 Friedrichshafen, Germany
Phone: 7545-80

Eyles, C.J.
School of Physics and Space Research
Chancellor's Court
The University of Birmingham
P.O. Box 363
Birmingham, United Kingdom B15 2TT
Phone: 021-414-4565

Fabbrizzi, F.
Officine Galileo
via Einstein, 35
I-50013 Campi Bisenzio
Firenze (Florence), Italy
Phone: 055 8950380

Felkai, R.
Erno Raumfahrttechnik GMBH
Huenefeldstrasse 1-5
P.O. Box 105909
D 2800 Bremen 1, Germany
Phone: 0421 539 4378

Fleischauer, Dr. P.D.
The Aerospace Corporation
P.O. Box 92957
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
Los Angeles, California 90009-2957
(213) 336-6098

Flew, A.
Norcroft Dynamics, Ltd.
Fellows House
High Street
Pewsey, Wiltshire, United Kingdom SN9 5AF
Phone: 0672-62169

Gallagher, K.
Marconi Space Systems Ltd.
Anchorage Road
Portsmouth, Hants, United Kingdom PO3 5PU
Phone: 0705-664966

Gomm, M.A.
Devtev, Ltd.
20 Viscount Avenue
Airways Industrial Estate
Cloghran
Dublin 17, Eire
Phone: 1-426668

Graftas, O.
Raufoss A/S
P.O. Box 2
N-2831 Raufoss, Norway
Phone: 4761 52 281

Greener, B.
Met Office 19
Remote Sensing Instrumentation
Room 8, Building Y 70
Royal Aircraft Establishment
Farnborough, Hants, United Kingdom GU14 6TD
Phone: 0252-515523

Hartwig, H.
Max-Planck-Institut fur Aeronomie
Postfach 20, D3411 Katlenburg
Lindau, Germany
Phone: 05556 4011

Hawthorn, Dr. H.M.
National Research Council
Tribology and Mechanics Laboratory
Division of Mechanical Engineering
3650 Westbrook Mall
Vancouver, BC
Canada V6S 2L2
Phone: 604-663-2603

Henton-Jones, W.A.
Sira Research and Development Division
Sooth Hill
Chislehurst, Kent, United Kingdom BR7 5EH
Phone: 081-467-2636

Hostenkamp, R.G.
Dornier GMBH
Postfach 1360
7990 Friedrichshafen, Germany
Phone: 7545-80

Humphries, M.
British Aerospace (Space Systems)Ltd.
Earth Observation and Science Division
FPC 321
P.O. Box 5
Filton, Bristol, United Kingdom BS12 7QW
Phone: 0272-693831

Huomo, H.
Technical Research Centre of Finland
VTT Instrument Laboratory
P.O. Box 107
SF-02151 ESPOO, Finland
Phone: 0-4561

Kemper, Ir. C.A.L.
Stork Product Engineering PV
70 Oostenburgervoorstraat
1010 MR Amsterdam
P.O. Box 379
1000 AJ, The Netherlands
Phone: 20 6262011

Koller, F.
ORS
Operngasse 20b
A-1040 Wien (Vienna), Austria
Phone: 222-58814-240

Kong Chang, Soo
Spar Aerospace, Ltd.
1700 Ormont Drive
Weston, Ontario
Canada M9L 2W7
Phone: 416-745-4680

Kose, Dr. S.
Oerlikon-Contraves AG
580 Schaffehauserstrasse
CH-8052 Zurich, Switzerland
Phone: 01-829-4534

Lavadoux, M.
Sagem
Avenue du Gros Chene
PB 51
F-95612 Cergy-Pontoise
CeDEX, France
Phone: 1-34-30-52-74

Leefe, S.E.
BHR Group
Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom MK43 0AJ
Phone: 0234-750422

Leveille, A.R.
The Aerospace Corporation
2350 East El Segundo Boulevard
P.O. Box 92957
Los Angeles, California 90009

Loewenthal, S.
Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.
1111 Lockheed Way
Sunnyvale, California 94089-3504
(408) 743-2491

Long, J.S.
Serc Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Chilton
Didcot, Oxen, United Kingdom OX11 0QX
Phone: 0235-21900

Magani, P.G.
Tecnopsazio Spa
via Delle Mercantesse, 3
20021 Branzate di Bollate
Milan, Italy
Phone: 023560950

Marchetto, C.
GE Astra Space
P.O. Box 800
Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0800
(609) 490-3392

Maus, D.
Starsys Research Corporation
5757 Central Avenue, Suite E
Boulder, Colorado 80301
Phone: (303) 444-6707

Morris, N.
Rutherford Appleton Laboratories
Space and Astrophysics Department
Chilton
Didcot, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom OX11 0QX
Phone: 0235-445210

Mueller, G.
Matra Marconi Space
31 Rue Des Cosmonautes
Z.I. du Palays
31077 Toulouse
CeDex, France
Phone: 6224 75 86

Nieuwenhuizen, M.
Fokker Space and Systems PV
P.O. Box 12222
1100 AE Amsterdam-Zuidoost, The Netherlands
Phone: 20-605 9111

Patin, J.F.
Aerspatiale Space and Strategic Systems Division
Establishment De Cannes
100 Boulevard Du Midi, BP 99
F-06322 Cannes la Bocca, CeDex, France
Phone: 92-92-74-07

Patrick, T.J.
Mullard Space Science Laboratory
Holmburg St. Mary
Dorking, Surrey, United Kingdom RStrong 6NT
Phone: 0483-274111

Privat, M.
CNES
18 Avenue Edouard Belin
F-31055 Toulouse, CeDex, France
Phone: 61 27 3131

Rockly, G.
TELDIX GmBh
Postfach 10 56 08
D-6900 Heidelberg, Germany
Phone: 06221-5120

Roth, M.
MBB Space Systems Group
P.O. Box 801169
D-8000 Munich 80, Germany
Phone: (089)-60006302

Schwarzinger, D.C.
ORS
The Austrian Aerospace Company
Operngasse 20B
A-1040, Wien, Austria
Phone: 0222-58814

Shmulevitz, M.
Israel Aircraft Industries
Electronics Division/MBT
Yehud, Industrial zone 56 000
Israel
Phone: 3-4024

Smith, B.
British Aerospace (Space Systems) Ltd.
Argyle Way
Stevenage, Herts, United Kingdom SG1 2AS
Phone: 0438-313456

Smith, D.
Honewell Inc.
P.O. Box 52199
Phoenix, Arizona 85072-2199
(602) 561-3237

Sneiderman, G.
NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center
Greenbelt Road
Greenbelt, Maryland 20221
(301) 286-2000

Tasker, J.
Moore Reed Ltd.
Walsworth Ind. Estate
Andover, Hampshire, United Kingdom
Phone: 0264-324155

Turner, R.F.
Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
British National Space Centre
Chilton
Didcot, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom OX11 0QX
Phone: 0235-21900

Whiteman, P.
Marconi Space Systems Ltd.
Anchorage Road
Portsmouth, Hampshire, United Kingdom P03 5PU
Phone: 0705-664966

Zwanenburg, R.
Fokker Space and Systems BV
P.O. Box 12222
100 AE Amsterdam-Zuidoost, The Netherlands
Phone: 20-605 9111

FACILITIES

This section presents descriptions of testing facilities available at the following installations:

Boeing Company

A large thermal vacuum chamber is located at the Boeing Company. Specifications include: Specification sheet available upon request.

European Space Tribology Laboratory

ESTL was the first laboratory outside the main European Space Agency (ESA) establishments to become fully compliant with ESA's standards for test houses (ESA PSS-01-203), contamination and cleanliness control (ESA PSS-021-201), thermal vacuum tests for screening space materials (ESA PSS-01-702), and also ISO9001.

There are some 25 vacuum chambers, 4 physical vapor deposition chambers for lubricant application, and 3 tribometers.

ESTL's facilities are designed for versatility and flexibility.  A wide range of mechanisms and components can be accommodated.  Laboratory systems can be adapted and modified to suit customers' requirements.

Clean Room

ESTL has a total laboratory floor area of 550 m2; approximately 300 m2 of this area is better than Class 10,000 (U.S. Federal Standard 109E), with Class 100 areas maintained for component inspection, and mechanism and bearing assembly.

Vacuum Chambers

ESTL has 11 chambers from 150 to 1000 mm in diameter (up to 0.95 m3 in working volume), with an achievable vacuum pressure down to 10-9 mbar, and typical temperature range of -150 C to +150 C (see Figure 2).

Emphasis is laid on vacuum chamber cleanliness and pump reliability.  Turbomolecular pumps are used for initial pumping; the lowest pressures are achieved with ion pumps or cryogenic pumps.  With such systems, there is no risk of chamber contamination.  Long-term performance (more than eight years with ion pumps) can be guaranteed.

Each large chamber is equipped with two or more thermal-radiation shrouds and electric heaters.  With these, a wide range of thermal conditions (including rapid changes of temperature can be achieved.

Dedicated facilities include those for testing the torque disturbance and qualification of solar array drives, measuring directional accuracy of antenna pointing mechanisms, gearbox performance evaluations (from 1- to 500-Nm output torque), scanner simulation, and motor/gearhead evaluation.

Experimental rigs that have been used in the above chambers include those to study separable electrical and fluid connectors, slip rings, motor commutation, oscillatory bearing behavior, gears (four-square arrangement) and thermal conductance measurements of Hertzian contacts.

Figure 2: ESTL Vacuum Chamber

Vacuum Chamber

Specific Test Facilities

Vacuum Cryogenic Test Rig.

Baseplate temperatures down to 4.2 K can be achieved within a 6000-cm3 (6-liter) working volume (will accept mechanisms to 20 cm in diameter) and at pressures below 10-8 mbar.  Rolling element bearing evaluations can be performed with in situ cryocompatible torque and force transducers.  Pin-on-disk friction and wear evaluations are also possible in this facility.

Pin-on-Disk Tribometers.

Loads to 150 N and speeds to 500 rpm can be achieved.  These were designed by ESTL and used to evaluate the basic tribological properties of materials and dry lubricants.  Specific applications cover both vacuum and air environments.

Ball Bearing Test Facilities.

Fourteen vacuum chambers (nominal size 150 mm diameter) are available to measure bearing torque behavior (dc and noise level) continuously under thermal vacuum conditions.  Radial thermal conductance of ball bearings can also be measured.  The test chambers are also used for PVD bearing lubrication characterization.  Vacuum-compatible piezo and RVDT transducers are used to measure transmitted torques directly.  Typically speeds are to 1500 rpm, bearing preload as required.  An air bearing rig is available for cage stability studies (speeds to 5000 rpm).

Gearbox Test Facility.

This facility is used for invacuo testing of high-torque gearboxes (up to 500 Nm output torque) for space usage (e.g., robotic actuators).

Boundary Lubrication Accelerated Screening Tester (BLAST).

The tester is used to perform accelerated screening of the boundary lubrication (and degradation) behavior of liquid lubricants, bearing materials, and surface treatments.  Loads to 500 N and speeds to 3000 rpm can be achieved (see Figure 3).

Figure 3: Boundary Lubrication Accelerated Screening Tester

Boundary Lubrication Tester

High-Temperature Reciprocating Tribometer.

The following conditions can be achieved: up to 800 C; stroke length: 1 to 15 mm; load range: 20 to 250 N; stroke frequency: -2 strokes/sec.  Friction and wear can be measured.  The gaseous environment can be controlled to -15 ppm of water vapor and oxygen.

Instrumentation

The instrumentation used to support the mechanism/component tests includes:

Data Logging

Data logging facilities vary from standard pen and UV recorders, programmable DVMs, etc., to stand-alone 386/486-based data loggers, with logging rates up to 50,000 readings/sec.  Appropriate data handling, analysis, and graphical display can be performed.

Related Facilities

AEA Technology's extensive facilities are readily available to ESTL. They include:

Honeywell Electromagnetic Controls

Test Capabilities

Honeywell Electromagnetic Control's (HEC's) fully equipped and well-staffed testing department performs a wide variety of electromechanical, electromagnetic, and electronic tests.  The 3200-ft^2 facility is routinely used to conduct standard functional, environmental, and life tests.  Additionally, HEC custom designs and fabricates consoles and fixtures to test dynamic and functional characteristics.  All technicians are ESD trained in parts handling.  Measuring equipment is calibrated regularly in accordance with the Bureau of Standards requirements.  Major equipment includes:

Functional Test Capabilities.

Equipment for functional capabilities tests include computerized automatic test equipment, which uses a laser interferometer to track movement to 0.000001 in./step; a Spectral Dynamics SD380 signal analyzer, which checks harmonic content or distortion of a signal and plots distortion against frequency; and shaft torque sensors, which have a load range of 10 oz-in. to over 2000 in.-lb to check output torque of motors.

Augmenting the functional test laboratory equipment are direct-drive rate tables for testing drag torque and detent torque, various phase angle voltmeters that determine the phase relationship of ac voltage at various frequencies, digital oscilloscopes for troubleshooting and monitoring rotor calibration, and a Digasine AA gage for checking rotational accuracy to within 0.1 min.

Environmental Test Capabilities.

The environmental test lab (Figure 4) utilizes eight thermal chambers (Figure 5) that perform a variety of tests, including thermal cycling and thermal shock in a temperature range of -73 to +125 C. Three of the eight thermal chambers are also vacuum chambers capable of producing 1 x 10^-6 torr of vacuum.  Vibration capability (sine and random) for subassemblies and end item products is generated by four vibrators, three of which are thermal, and range in size from 2 ft^3 to approximately 50 ft^3 (Figure 6).  Mechanical shock and thermal humidity tests are also performed.

Life Test Capabilities.

Life tests encompass a number of tests performed in the thermal chambers (temperature range from -73 to +125 C), including burn-in tests whereby a unit is powered and left in the temperature-controlled chamber for 96 hr, and cycling unit tests, whereby the temperature is varied along with powering and unpowering the unit.  This test is often done for 300 hr.  Thermal humidity tests are also performed.

Figure 4: Honeywell Environmental Test Facility

Honeywell Facility

Figure 5: Honeywell Environmental Thermal Chamber

Honeywell Chamber

Figure 6: Honeywell Shaker Table Facility and Control Room

Honeywell Shaker

Honeywell Control Room

Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, Inc. (LMSC)

LMSC Testing Facilities

Bearing Test Laboratory.

Fully equipped bearing test laboratory contains:

Mechanisms Laboratory.

The mechanisms laboratory contains:

Failure Analysis Laboratory.

The failure analysis laboratory contains:

Miniature Precision Bearings

NASA - Johnson Space Flight Center

Structures Test Lab (STL)

This facility is utilized for material property testing of metallic and nonmetallic materials at ambient, thermal, and/or vacuum conditions.  Industrial load test frames and test systems can test specimens with tensile loading as well as comprehensive loading.  The STL has a wide variety of test systems available for structural testing, including servohydraulic test systems, electromechanical test systems, a computer-controlled load system, and various miscellaneous equipment.

Thermal Facilities

The RHTF and SRHTF use electrically powered radiant heater arrays that utilize graphite-resistance elements and water-cooled reflectors for reliable and efficient operation.  The radiant heaters are operated in test chambers that contain vacuum pumps to allow simulation of temperature and pressure conditions.  Cryogenic cooling panels are employed to allow preconditioning of TPS material samples to simulate on-orbit cold soak.  The RHTF has a 10-ft diameter vacuum chamber (R-1) that can accommodate test articles as large as 6 x 8 ft and can simulate temperature gradients through use of multizone temperature control.  The SRHTF can accommodate test panels up to 2 x 2 ft and can simulate uniform temperature conditions.  The heater in the SRHTF was transferred to the RHTF and was used with the R-1 vacuum chamber for radiant heat test programs during the past year.  The SRH will be deactivated when an 8-ft diameter chamber (R-2) becomes operational.

Vibration and Acoustic Test Facility (VATF)

The vibration and acoustic laboratories (contained in the VATF) are capable of performing the wide range of tests needed to evaluate all aspects of acoustic, vibration, structural dynamic, and shock problems.  This facility has the capability for development, qualification, and acceptance testing, not only of aerospace vehicles and equipment, but also nonaerospace equipment that is to be subjected to high-intensity acoustic noise, vibration, and shock environments.  The VATF test team works in cooperation with visiting users during every phase of a test program to optimize test support and assure accomplishment of test objectives.  This facility provided extensive dynamic structural test support for shuttle orbiter certification.  State-of-the-art techniques are incorporated in all facility laboratories; the facility has unsurpassed low-frequency acoustic test capabilities, and provides unparalleled features for accomplishing acoustic testing, mechanically induced vibration testing, and empirical modal analysis within one building.  Laboratory arrangements and test support systems are equally suited for readily and efficiently dynamic testing of small components or large assemblies.

Materials Technology Laboratory (MTL)

The MTL provides the NASA-Johnson Space Flight Center with the capability for supporting experimental investigations and evaluations of materials for current and advanced programs.  The following tasks are typical of those conducted with laboratory support: Facilities available in the laboratory include:

Lubrication and Wear

A new experimental apparatus is being developed for the lubrication and wear of materials.  The experimental setup consists of a shoe-on-drum arrangement, which allows a maximum of five material couples to be evaluated simultaneously under sliding wear conditions.  The material specimens can also be exposed to a flowing atomic oxygen discharge and UV radiation in order to provide for the accelerated testing of spacecraft materials.  Coefficient of friction and surface chemistry and morphology data may be collected using this system.

NASA - Langley Research Center

Pyrotechnic Test Facility

The pyrotechnic test facility contains the Langley Research Center aerospace environmental and functional simulation equipment used for the handling and testing of small-scale potentially hazardous materials, including explosive and pyrotechnic materials, devices, and systems (see Figure 7).  The facility contains three 12- by 18-ft test cells, which are used for assembly and checkout, environmental testing, and test firing, respectively (see Figure 8).  A 30- by 60-ft general-purpose, high-bay, open work area is used for system testing and contains control systems for test capabilities for small items, including remotely operated vibration (2000 lbf); mechanical shock (30,000 g for 0.2 ms); constant acceleration (200 g); thermal (-320 to +600 F); thermal vacuum (-320 to +200 F at vacuums to 1 10-7 mm Hg); electrostatic discharge (25,000 V with 500 pf capacitor); electrical and mechanical firing systems; and high-speed measurements (40-kHz response analog) of acceleration; force; pressure; temperature; and explosive performance monitoring systems.  Adjacent facilities, containing larger test cells, provide an expanded capability of testing pounds of high-explosive materials (see Figure 9).

Figure 7: Pyrotechnic Test Facility at NASA-Langley

Langley Pyrotechnic Facility

Figure 8: Pyrotechnic Test Cells at NASA-Langley

Langley Pyrotechnic Test Cells

Figure 9: Pyrotechnic Test Cells Outside NASA-Langley

Pyrotechnic Test Cells OUTSIDE Langley

Hazardous Materials Test Area

Langley Research Center has the capability to test materials and systems that are potentially hazardous to both personnel and equipment.  Specially designed facilities on a land area, measuring 1000 by 1400 ft, are located in a remote area of the center to allow dissipation of noise and venting, as well as capturing fragments and debris produced by pressurized systems and explosive devices.  The facilities were originally created to assemble and test rocket motors and explosive devices.  The facilities are surrounded by fences to control traffic.  Earth berms around the large test facility and storage sites provide protection, meeting all military requirements for all but mass-detonating explosives, such as bombs.  Testing is accomplished remotely, providing high-speed electronic and photographic recording of a variety of parameters, such as force, pressure, temperature, velocity, ignition, and energy.  The following facilities are in this test area.

Pyrotechnic Storage.

Buildings for receiving, packaging unpackaging, and storage of pyrotechnic and explosive devices are completely surrounded by an earth berm.

Control Room and Test Cells

The control room provides automatic programming and monitoring of remote tests conducted in the three test cells.  Two cells measure 15 by 19 ft and the third is 20 by 19 ft; all three have vertical clearances to 18 ft with overhead cranes to 15 ft.  The cells have full-access, up doors, as well as roll-back ceilings.  A fragment-containing net covers the entire width of the building.  Capabilities include 250,000 lb of thrust and testing 5 lb of high explosives.  Emergency containment of up to 6000 lb of double-base rocket motor propellant is provided by thick, reinforced concrete covered by earth, as well as earth berms on two sides.

NASA - Glenn Research Center

Information on Glenn Research Center Facilities is available on the Mechanical Components Branch, Test Facilities page. You can also download an Illustrated brochure on Space Mechanisms facilities.

NASA - Marshall Space Flight Center

The majority of equipment in MSFC labs is for general tribological testing.  This equipment can be used to evaluate various types of lubricants such as oils, greases, dry film, and deposited thin film.  Below is a list of equipment:

Rockwell Science Center

SEM/AES/XPS Tribometer

This facility consists of a 12.7-mm (0.5-in.) diameter cylinder that rolls against a 50.8-mm (2-in.) diameter crowned disk, corresponding to the ball and raceway of a rolling element bearing, respectively.  The rotational speed of the two samples is controlled by two continuous variable-speed electric motors capable of up to 23,000 rpm and 5,000 rpm, respectively.  Thus, the slip/roll ratio is controllable over the whole range from pure sliding to pure rolling.  The ball retainer function is simulated by pressing a pin of retainer material against the cylinder.  Pure sliding can be studied by keeping the cylinder spindle stationary while rotating the disc spindle or vice versa.  The contact stress between the two rotating samples is continuously adjustable in real time up to about 4000 MPa mean Hertz stress or higher depending on contact geometry and elastic modulus of the materials.  The pin/cylinder contact stress is adjustable independent of the cylinder/disk loading.  Both forces are monitored by separate load cells, as is the traction force between the disk and cylinder.

Experiments can be performed either in ultra-high vacuum or up to one atmosphere of oxygen, hydrogen, and a variety of other gases.  The disk and cylinder samples can be internally cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature.  Design provisions have been made to accommodate high-temperature testing using laser heating.  The temperature is monitored at the cylinder/disk contact separation point with an infrared thermometer with a focal point smaller than the Hertz contact ellipse.  The total wear is monitored with a capacitance displacement probe.  A 500-kHz acoustic emission detector monitors sample contact and film breakdown.

The facility is equipped with an 8-channel computer data acquisition system that displays in real time on a color monitor and stores on a hard disk drive the disk/cylinder and pin/cylinder normal forces and the disk/cylinder friction force, the motor speeds, the wear, and the temperature.  The data retrieval, reduction, calculations, and graphing have been automated using a dedicated 486/33 computer.

The test chamber is equipped with an SEM, a scanning Auger electron spectroscope (AES) and a small-area multichannel x-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) operated via an Apollo 3500 computer and PHI surface analysis software to examine the topography and chemically analyze the wear track as the test is running.  The chemical composition of the test environment is monitored by a VG triple-filter quadropole mass spectrometer via a 386/20 computer using VG software.  Chemical composition depth profiling of the wear track can be done using the ion sputter gun.  The facility is also equipped with a high-speed video camera operated as a strobe to obtain real-time freeze-frame images of the wear track using a dedicated 486/66 computer image analysis system.

Space Systems/Loral

University of Maryland

The University of Maryland's space environment simulation is limited.  There is a small vacuum chamber on campus.  The proximity of the University to Goddard Space Flight Center is an asset.

The University of Maryland offers one of the four neutral buoyancy facilities in the country.  The Neutral Buoyancy Research Facility houses a 50-ft diameter, 25-ft deep neutral buoyancy tank.  This is used to simulate the weightlessness of space while performing various operations.

Viking/Metrom Laboratories

REFERENCES

There are numerous publications on space mechanisms available through various societies and publishing firms.  The preponderance of material is contained in the 28 volumes of the Aerospace Mechanisms Symposia (AMS) sponsored by NASA.  Following is a listing of all the AMS papers sorted by topic.

Some additional references were supplied via the survey responses.  These are included below.  A strong list of Pyrotechnic publications was provided by Bement.  The publications listed below by Fusaro provide an informative prospective of space mechanism technology. Most of the Fusaro reports below are available for download.

  1. Fusaro, R.L. "Tribology Needs for Future Space and Aeronautical Systems.", NASA Technical Memorandum 104525, December 1991.
  2. Fusaro, R.L. "Government/Industry Response to Questionnaire on Space Mechanisms/ Tribology Technology Needs.", NASA Technical Memorandum 104358, May 1991.
  3. Fusaro, R.L. "Lubrication of Space Systems - Challenges and Potential Solutions.", NASA Technical Memorandum 105560, April 1992.
  4. Fusaro, R.L. and M.M. Khonsari. "Liquid Lubrication for Space Applications.", NASA Technical Memorandum 105198, July 1992.

Index of Papers Sorted by Topic

Aerospace Mechanism Symposia Proceedings (Volumes 1 through 28)

Center for Aerospace Structures

Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences

University of Colorado

  1. Murphy, T.J., K.E. David, and H.W. Babel. "Solid-Film Lubricants and Thermal Control Coatings Flown Aboard the E01M-3 MDA Sub-Experiment." McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Report MOC 93H1394, Presented at 32nd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, Nevada, January 1994.
  2. Freeman, Michael. "On-Orbit Deployment Anomalies: What Can Be Done?" 17th Space Simulation Conference (N93-15603), pp. 113-136.
  3. Heard, Walter L., Watson, Judith J. "Results of the Access Construction Shuttle Flight Experiment." AIAA Space Systems Technology Conference, San Diego, California, AIAA #86-1186, June 1992.
  4. Masri, S.F., Miller, R.K., Traina, M.I. "Development of Bearing Friction Models from Experimental Measurements." Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 148, pp. 455-475, 1991.
  5. Misawa, M., Yasaka, T., Miyake, S. "Analytical and Experimental Investigations for Satellite Antenna Deployment Mechanisms." Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 26, No. 3, AIAA Paper No. 88-2225, pp. 181-187, May-June.
  6. Misawa, Masayoshi. "Deployment Reliability Prediction for Large Satellite Antennas Driven by Spring Mechanisms." AIA Paper No. 93-1621.
  7. Nuss, H.E. "Space Simulation Facilities and Recent Experience in Satellite Thermal Testing." Vacuum, Vol. 37, No. 3, 4, pp. 297-302, 1987.
  8. Parker, K. "Some Experiences of Thermal Vacuum Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms." Vacuum, Vol. 37, No. 3, 4, pp. 303-307, 1987.
  9. Rhodes, Marvin D. "Design Considerations for Joints in Deployable Space Truss Structures." First NASA/DOD CSI Technology Conference, Norfolk, Virginia, November 1986.
  10. NASA Contract No. NAS8-31352. "Solar Array Flight Experiment Final Report." April 1986.
  11. Tzou, H.S., Rong, Y. "Contact Dynamics of a Spherical Joint and a Jointed Truss-Cell System." AIAA Journal, pp. 81-88, January 1991.
  12. Young, Leighton E., Pack, Homer C. "Solar Array Flight Experiment/Dynamic Augmentation Experiment." NASA Technical Paper 2690, 1987.
  13. Adams, L.R. "Hing Specification for a Square-Faceted Tetrahedral Truss." NASA Contractor Report 172272, January 1984.
  14. Bowden, M. Dugundji, J. "Effects of Joint Damping and Joint Nonlinearity on the Dynamics of Space Structures." AIAA SDM Issues of the International Space Station Conference, Williamsbury, Virginia, AIAA No. 88-2480, April 1988.
  15. Freudenstein, F., Maki, E.R. "The Creation of Mechanisms According to Kinematic Structure and Function." Journal of Environment and Planning B, pp. 375-391, 1979.
  16. Heimerdinger, H. "An Antenna Pointing Mechanism for Large Reflector Antennas." 15th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, NASA Conference Publication 2181, 1981.
  17. Kellemaier, H. Vorbrugg, H. Pontoppidan, K. "The MBB Unfurlable Mesh Antenna (UMA) Design and Development." AIAA 11th Communication Satellite Systems Conference, San Diego, California, March 1986.
  18. Marks, G., Anders, C., Draisey, S., Elzeki, M. "The Olympus Solar Array Development and Test Program." Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium, "Photovoltaic Generators in Space," Cannes, September 1984, ESA SP-210, November 1984.
  19. Rowntree, R.A., Roberts, E.W., Todd, M.J. "Tribological Design - The Spacecraft Industry." 15th Leeds-Lyons Symposium, September 1988.
  20. Satter, C.M., Kuo, C. "Thermal/Mechanical Analysis of a Panel Attachment System for the PSR." SPIE Conference, Orlando, Florida, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 1114, pp. 1114-51, March 1989.
  21. Wada, B.K., Kuo, C.P., Glaser, R.J. "Extension of Ground-Based Testing for Large Space Systems." AIAA 26th SDM, AIAA Paper No. 85-0757, pp. 477-483, 1985.

References Provided Through Survey

From Jones

  1. Masuko, M., W.R. Jones Jr., and L.S. Hemlick. "Tribological Characteristics of Perfluoropolyether Liquid Lubricants under Sliding Conditions." NASA TM 106257, July 1993.
  2. Masuko, W.R. Jones Jr., R. Jansen, B. Ebihara, and S.V. Pepper. "A Vacuum Four-Ball Tribometer to Evaluate Liquid Lubricants for Space Applications." NASA TM 106264, July 1993.
  3. Jones, W.R. Jr.The Properties of Perfluoropolyethers Used for Space Applications." NASA TM 106275, July 1993.
  4. Jones, W.R. Jr., et. al. "The Preliminary Evaluation of Liquid Lubricants for Space Application by Vacuum Tribology." Preprint from 28th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, NASA Lewis Research Center, May 1994.

References Provided Through Survey

Pyrotechnic Test Facility

  1. Lake, E.R., Thompson, S.J., and Drexelius, V.W. "A Study of the Role of Pyrotechnics on the Space Shuttle Program." NASA CR-2292, September 1973.
  2. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Integration of Pyrotechnics into Aerospace Systems." Presented at the 27th Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium, NASA Ames Research Center, May 1993.
  3. Bement, Laurence J. "Pyrotechnic System Failures: Causes and Prevention." NASA TM 100633, June 1988.
  4. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Determination of Pyrotechnic Functional Margin." Presented at the 1991 SAFE Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada, November 1991.
  5. Elern, Herbert. "Modern Pyrotechnics." Chemical Publishing Company, 1961.
  6. MIL-P-46994/B, Amendment 3. "General Specification for Boron/Potassium Nitrate."
  7. Drexelius, V.W., and Schimmel, M.L. "A Simplified Approach to Parachute Mortar Design." Presented at the Seventh Symposium on Explosives and Pyrotechnics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 1971.
  8. SKB26100066. "Design and Performance Specification for NASA Standard Initiator-1 (NSI-1)." January 1990.
  9. Meyer, Rudolph. "Explosives." Printed by Verlag Chemie, 1977.
  10. "Properties of Explosives of Military Interest." AMCP 706-177, AD 764340, U.S. Army Materiel Command, January 1971.
  11. Rouch, L.L., and Maycock, J.N. "Explosive and Pyrotechnic Aging Demonstration." NASA CR-2622, February 1976.
  12. WS5003J. "Material Specification for HNS Explosive." Naval Surface Weapons Center, February 1981.
  13. Kilmer, E.E. "Heat-Resistant Explosives for Space Applications." Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, Vol. 5, No. 10, October 1968.
  14. MIL-STD-1576 (USAF). "Electroexplosive Subsystem Safety Requirements and Test Methods for Space Systems, July 1984.
  15. DOD-E-83578A (USAF). "Explosive Ordnance for Space Vehicles (Metric), General Specification for." October 1987.
  16. NSTS 08060, Revision G. "Space Shuttle System Pyrotechnic Specification."
  17. Lake, E.R. "Percussion Primers, Design Requirements." McDonnell Douglas Corporation Report MDC A0514, Revision B, April 1982.
  18. Schimmel, Morry L. "The F-111 Crew Module: Major Challenge for Thermally Stable Explosives." U.S. Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, Silver Spring, Maryland, June 1970.
  19. Schimmel, Morry L., and Kirk, Bruce. "Study of Explosive Propagation Across Air Gaps." McDonnell Aircraft Corporation Report B331, December 1964.
  20. Schimmel, Morry L. "Quantitative Understanding of Explosive Stimulus Transfer." NASA CR-2341, December 1973.
  21. Bement, Laurence J. "Helicopter (RSRA) In-Flight Escape System Component Qualification." Presented at the Tenth Symposium on Explosives and Pyrotechnics, San Francisco, California, February 1979.
  22. Persson, Per-Anders. "Fuse." U.S. Patent 3,590,739, July 1971.
  23. Chenault, Clarence F., McCrae, Jack E. Jr., Bryson, Robert R., and Yang, Lien C. "The Small ICBM Laser Ordnance Firing System." AIAA 92-1328.
  24. Ankeney, D.P., Marrs, D.M., Mason, B.E., Smith, R.L., and Faith, W.N. "Laser Initiation of Propellants and Explosives." Selected Papers, SP93-09 on Laser Ignition, Published by the Chemical Propulsion Information Agency, September 1993.
  25. Drexelius, V.W., and Berger, Harold. "Neutron Radiographic Inspection of Ordnance Components." Presented at the Fifth Symposium on Electroexplosive Devices, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 1967.
  26. Bement, Laurence J. "Monitoring of Explosive/Pyrotechnic Performance." Presented at the Seventh Symposium on Explosives and Pyrotechnics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, September 1971.
  27. Schimmel, Morry L., and Drexelius, Victor W. "Measurement of Explosive Output." Presented at the Fifth Symposium of Electroexplosive Devices, the Franklin Institute, June 1967.
  28. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Cartridge Output Testing: Methods to Overcome Closed-Bomb Shortcomings." Presented at the 1990 SAFE Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, December 1990.
  29. Bement, Laurence J., Schimmel, Morry L., Karp, Harold, and Magenot, Michael C. "Development and Demonstration of an NSI-Derived Gas Generating Cartridge (NGGC)." Presented at the 1994 NASA Pyrotechnic Systems Workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 1994.
  30. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Ignitability Test Method." Presented at the 1988 SAFE Symposium, Las Vegas, Nevada, December 1988.
  31. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Ignitability Test Method, Part 2." Presented at the 1989 SAFE Symposium, New Orleans, Louisiana, December 1989.
  32. Bement, Laurence J., Doris, Thomas A., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Output Testing of Small-Arms Primers." Presented at the 1990 SAFE Symposium, San Antonio, Texas, December 1990.
  33. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Approach for Service Life of Explosive Devices for Aircraft Escape Systems." NASA TM 86323, February 1985.
  34. Bement, Laurence J., Kayser, Eleonore G., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Service Life Evaluation of Rigid Explosive Transfer Lines." NASA TP2143, August 1983.
  35. Bement, Laurence J., and Schimmel, Morry L. "Investigation of Super*Zip Separation Joint." NASA TM 4031, May 1988.


Some of the documents in this page are provided in PDF format and require Adobe's Acrobat Reader.
Download the Adobe plug-in from www.adobe.com.

Curator & responsible official: Phillip.Abel_AT_nasa.gov.
NASA Web Privacy Policy and Important Notices
Last modified 18 Dec 2007