The motion of an aircraft through the air can be explained and described by physical principals discovered over 300 years ago by Sir Isaac Newton. Newton worked in many areas of mathematics and physics. He developed the theories of gravitation in 1666, when he was only 23 years old. Some twenty years later, in 1686, he presented his three laws of motion in the "Principia Mathematica Philosophiae Naturalis." The laws are shown above, and the application of these laws to aerodynamics are given on separate slides.

Newton's first law states that every
object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line
unless compelled to change its state by the action of an external
force. This is normally taken as the definition of **inertia.**
The key point here is that if there is no **net force** acting on an
object (if all the external forces cancel each other out) then the
object will maintain a constant velocity. If that velocity is zero,
then the object remains at rest. If an external force is applied, the
velocity will change because of the force.

The second law explains how the velocity will change.
The law defines a **force** to be equal to change in **momentum** (mass
times velocity) per change in time. Newton also developed the calculus of mathematics,
and the "changes" expressed in the second law are accurately defined in differential
forms. (Calculus can also be used to determine the velocity and location variations
experienced by an object subjected to an external force.) For an object with
a constant mass, the second law can be more easily expressed as the product
of an object's mass and it's acceleration (F = ma). For an external applied
force, the change in velocity depends on the mass of the object. A force will
cause a change in velocity; and likewise, a change in velocity will generate
a force. The equation works both ways.

The third law states that for every action (force) in nature there is an equal and opposite reaction. In other words, if object A exerts a force on object B, then object B also exerts an equal force on object A. Notice that the forces are exerted on different objects. The third law can be used to explain the generation of lift by a wing and the production of thrust by a jet engine.

Navigation..

- Beginner's Guide to Aerodynamics
- Beginner's Guide to Propulsion
- Beginner's Guide to Model Rockets
- Beginner's Guide to Kites
- Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics

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- Beginner's Guide Home Page

*byTom
Benson
Please send suggestions/corrections to: benson@grc.nasa.gov *